As primary sex organs, gonads generate reproductive gametes containing inheritable DNA. They also produce most of the primary hormones that affect sexual development, and regulate other sexual organs and sexually differentiated behaviors.
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Secondary sex organs refer the rest of the reproductive system, whether internal or external. The Latin term genitaliasometimes anglicized as genitalsis used to describe the externally visible sex organs: in male mammals, the penis and scrotum ; and in female mammals, the vulva and its organs.
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In general zoology, given the great variety in organs, physiologies, and behaviors involved in copulationmale genitalia are more strictly defined as "all male structures that are inserted in the female or that hold her near her gonopore during sperm transfer"; female genitalia are defined as "those parts of the female reproductive tract that make direct contact with male genitalia or male products sperm, spermatophores during or immediately after copulation". The visible portion of the mammalian genitals for males consists of the scrotum and penis ; for females, it consists of the vulva labiaclitorisetc.
In placental mammalsfemales have two genital orifices, the vagina and urethra, while males have only one, the urethra. In typical prenatal developmentsex organs originate from a common primordium during early gestation and differentiate into male or female sexes.
The SRY geneusually located on the Y chromosome and encoding the testis determining factordetermines the direction of this differentiation. The absence of it allows the gonads to continue to develop into ovaries. Thereafter, the development of the internal, and external reproductive organs is determined by hormones produced by certain fetal gonads ovaries or testes and the cells' response to them.
The initial appearance of the fetal genitalia looks basically feminine: a pair of " urogenital folds " with a small protuberance in the middle, and the urethra behind the protuberance.
If the fetus has testes, and if the testes produce testosterone, and if the cells of the genitals respond to the testosterone, the outer urogenital folds swell and fuse in the midline to produce the scrotum; the protuberance grows larger and straighter to form the penis; the inner urogenital swellings grow, wrap around the penis, and fuse in the midline to form the penile urethra.
Each sex organ in one sex has a homologous counterpart in the other one. See a list of homologues of the human reproductive system. In a larger perspective, the whole process of sexual differentiation also includes development of secondary sexual characteristics such as patterns of pubic and facial hair and female breasts that emerge at puberty.
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Furthermore, differences in brain structure arise, affecting, but not absolutely determining, behavior. Intersex is the development of genitalia somewhere between typical male and female genitalia. Once the child is born, the parents are faced with decisions that are often difficult to make, such as whether or not to modify the genitalia, assign the child as male or femaleor leave the genitalia as is.
Some parents allow their doctors to choose. If they pick the wrong one, their child may begin to show symptoms of transsexualismwhich can lead them to a life of discomfort until they are able to remedy the issue.
Because of the strong sexual selection affecting the structure and function of genitalia, they form an organ system that evolves rapidly.
In many other animals a single posterior orifice, called the cloacaserves as the only opening for the reproductive, digestive, and urinary tracts if present. All amphibians, birds, reptiles, some fish, and a few mammals monotremes, tenrecs, golden moles, and marsupial moles have this orifice, from which they excrete both urine and feces in addition to serving reproductive functions. Excretory systems with analogous purpose in certain invertebrates are also sometimes referred to as cloacae.
The organs concerned with insect mating and the deposition of eggs are known collectively as the external genitalia, although they may be largely internal; their components are very diverse in form. The reproductive system of gastropods slugs and snails varies greatly from one group to another.
Planaria are flat worms widely used in biological research. There are sexual and asexual planaria. Sexual planaria are hermaphrodites, possessing both testicles and ovaries. Each planarian transports its excretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm. The life cycle of land plants involves alternation of generations between a sporophyte and a haploid gametophyte. The gametophyte produces sperm or egg cells by mitosis.
The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis which in turn develop into gametophytes. Any sex organs that are produced by the plant will develop on the gametophyte.
The seed plantswhich include conifers and flowering plants have small gametophytes that develop inside the pollen grains male and the ovule female. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the union of the male and female germ cells, sperm and egg cells respectively.
Pollen is produced in stamensand is carried to the pistilwhich has the ovary at its base where fertilization can take place. Within each pollen grain is a male gametophyte which consists of only three cells.
This location is important because in order for the sperm to develop properly, they must be kept at a temperature about two degrees cooler than normal body temperature. It takes sperm about 4 to 6 weeks to mature, which they do as they travel from each testis to a coiled tube on the outer surface of each testis called the epididymis.
Sperm, which are often compared to tadpoles in appearance, use their tails to travel, while the head contains the genetic material. The penis is made of soft, spongy tissue that can expand or contract.
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When a man becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes engorged with bloodcausing the spongy tissues to stiffen and the penis to become erect. This erect state makes it easy to place the penis inside a woman's vagina during sexual intercourse.
Jul 29, Male Sexual Organ Abe Rouz. Loading Unsubscribe from Abe Rouz? Sex Map Of Britain S1 E3 Life As A Transgender Escort | Sex Map of Britain - Duration: The penis is made of soft, spongy tissue that can expand or contract. When a man becomes sexually aroused, the penis becomes engorged with blood, causing the spongy tissues to stiffen and the penis to become blueridgehomefashionsinc.com erect state makes it easy to place the penis inside a woman's vagina during sexual intercourse. During sex, the male reproductive system is still at work, equipping the sperm. Find male sex organs stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day.
During sex, the male reproductive system is still at work, equipping the sperm with the assistance they will need to fertilize an egg. Find out more about this process on the next page.